A major challenge to the development of long-term projections of shoreline changes is to identify, address and model the coastal processes responsible for them. Future coastal processes, either longshore or cross-shore, are primarily induced by coastal drivers such as mean sea level, waves, storm surges and tides, will be affected by global and regional climate change, and hence are uncertain. This contribution aims at identifying best practices in the assessment of climate chance-induced shoreline change including uncertainty estimates. For this purpose, we (1) describe the drivers and processes shaping the shoreline and how climate change will affect them; (2) analyse uncertainty sources, their propagation and management options; (3) review existing modelling frameworks developed over the last decade to predict future impacts on shoreline change due to climate change and variability, emphasizing how climate change is considered and the way uncertainties are addressed; and (4) discuss whether a best approach can be identified and provide a set of recommendations.

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